As per para 3.1(i) of the Guidelines issued under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, Compensatory Afforestation is one of the most important conditions stipulated by the Central Government while approving proposals for diversion of forest land for non-forest uses. It is essential that for all such proposals, a comprehensive scheme for Compensatory Afforestation (CA) is formulated and submitted to the Government of India.

Directions of Supreme Court

  1. Supreme Court in its order in T.N. GodavarmanThirumulpad vs. Union of India and Others [Writ Petition (Civil) No. 202 of 1995], dated the 30th October, 2002, observed that a Compensatory Afforestation Fund be created in which all the monies received from the user agencies towards compensatory afforestation, additional compensatory afforestation, penal compensatory afforestation, net present value of the diverted forest land or catchment area treatment plan shall be deposited;
  2. The Supreme Court directed that, besides artificial regeneration (Plantations), the Fund shall also be utilised for undertaking assisted natural regeneration, protection of forests, infrastructure development, wildlife protection and other related activities and implemented through the Compensatory Afforestation Fund to ensure effective and proper utilisation of funds;

    Compensatory afforestation was to compensate for the loss of tangible as well as intangible benefits from the forest lands which were diverted for non-forest use. Such funds were to be used for natural assisted regeneration, forest management, protection, infrastructure development, wildlife protection and management, supply of wood and other forest produce saving devices and other allied activities. The Court observed that the fund would not be part of general revenues of the Union, of the States or part of the Consolidated Fund of India.

    Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) notified the Compensatory Afforestation Management Funds Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) in April, 2004 for the management of the compensatory afforestation fund.
  3. The Supreme Court of India observed in May 2006, that CAMPA had still not become operational and ordered the constitution of an ad-hoc body (known as ‘Ad-hoc CAMPA’), till CAMPA became operational. Central Government formulated guidelines dated the 2nd July, 2009 on the subject of State Authority for utilisation of funds lying with the Ad-hoc Authority.

    Government of Jharkhand vide its Notification No. 3/Vanbhumi 21/2009-3363 dated 23rdOctober, 2009 constituted Jharkhand CAMPA in pursuance to the directive of Govt. of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests vide its D.O. No. 5-1/2009-FC, dated 21st July, 2009. Further, the Government of Jharkhand vide its Notification No. 1879 dated 29thApril, 2013 created a full-fledged CAMPA wing under the charge of Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (APCCF), CAMPA for effective implementation and monitoring of CAMPA Scheme in the State.

Objectives of CAMPA

CAMPA is intended as an instrument to accelerate activities for preservation of natural forests, management of wildlife, infrastructure development in forests and other allied works. The monies collected from user agencies towards compensatory afforestation, additional compensatory afforestation, penal compensatory afforestation, Net Present Value (NPV) and all other amounts recovered from such agencies under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 is to be utilized for undertaking compensatory afforestation, assisted natural regeneration, conservation and protection of forests, infrastructure development, wildlife conservation and forest protection

Broad objectives of CAMPA are as under :

  1. Compensatory Afforestation/ Penal Compensatory Afforestation/ Compliance of other conditions stipulated while according approval for diversion of forest areas in the State;

  2. Conservation, protection, regeneration and management of existing natural forests;

  3. Biodiversity conservation and management of Protected Areas and wildlife habitats;

  4. Research, training and capacity building;

  5. Monitoring and evaluation of the works undertaken under the CAMPA;

  6. Awareness generation, promoting activities and study tours on conservation methods and best practices.